What are the different types of dermatitis?

There is a great variety of this pathology, because the triggers are multifactorial. We mention the most common:

1. Contact dermatitis

Contact dermatitis occurs when an irritating or toxic substance has direct or indirect contact with the skin and causes an allergic reaction in it. It has been described as the cause of most occupational diseases on the skin.

The treatment of contact dermatitis consists of fundamentally suspending contact with the triggering substance and if this is not possible, you should go to the use of protective measures for the skin.

Note: Other options if home treatment is not effective, is the use of topical steroids, but this should be indicated by a specialist doctor.

2. Atopic dermatitis

Atopic dermatitis or atopic eczema is a chronic dermatitis, that is, long-lasting, and manifests as a common skin allergy, which causes dryness and itching that when scratched reddens, irritates and thickens.

The most common triggers are foods such as milk, eggs, soy, wheat , peanuts, or fish; Inhalant Allergens such as dust mites, fungi, animal epithelia; colonization byStaphylococcus aureus on the skin and topical products such as cosmetics, fragrances, soaps, among others.

To highlight: In the treatment for atopic dermatitis, Skin hydration is important.Also personal hygiene through daily bathing, along with the immediate application of emollients, in addition to avoiding infections, as this could aggravate the disease. (1)

3. Seborrheic dermatitis

Seborrheic dermatitis is a type of endogenous eczema, characterized by the appearance of scales and erythema on the skin. The area in which it is located is with high sebum production, such as the scalp, eyelids, eyebrows, forehead and nasolabial fold. In infants it manifests as Cradle Cap.

The exact cause is unknown, but it is associated with two factors: the first is seborrheic skin caused by maternal hormones and the onset of puberty , and the second is the existing Microbial flora , which is associated with the fungus Pityrosporum ovaletag. Seborrheic dermatitisis not a hygiene problem, and this condition generally worsens with states of fatigue and emotional stress.

Note: The treatment used in these cases is the application of topical anti-inflammatories, topicalantifungals such as ketoconazole and ciclopirox. This is indicated by a study on“Topical antifungals for seborrheic dermatitis” . (two)

4. Follicular eczema

Follicular eczema is a poorly defined form of cutaneous atopy , characterized by the presence of Protrusions in the Hair follicles with a predominance in the extremities, it is common in African Americans and in people with dark brown skin.

Note: It manifests with dryness and itching and can be caused by stress, poor diet, climate changes, allergies and diseases such as asthma.

The treatment indicated for this pathology is, in the first instance, to Avoid the triggering factorstag. If the pathology persists, then your doctor may indicate the use of creams or ointments that contain corticosteroids, to apply them to the skin and relieve redness and irritation.

5. Dermatitis herpetiformis

Dermatitis herpetiformis, also called Dühring’s disease or Dühring-Brocq dermatitis , is characterized by a chronic, highly itchy vesicular eruption that extends evenly over extensor surfaces of the human body.

To highlight: The cause of this disease is associated with gluten intolerance , so that people with dermatitis herpetiformis are sensitive to gluten, causing the skin rash. (3)

The treatment for this pathology is, in the first instance, to eliminate all those foods that contain gluten tag. Your doctor may then prescribe other medications such as dapsone and sometimes sulfapyridine.

6. Nummular dermatitis

Nummular dermatitis, or microbial dermatitis, is a persistent rash of coin-shaped spots or patches that often have tiny, itchy blisters, crusts, and flakes on the skin. The word nummular is Latin and means “coin-shaped”.

The causes of this pathology are unknown to some researchers, however, others have postulated that it is a multifactorial disease , in which emotional, nutritional, environmental, infectious, pharmacological factors and certain allergens and irritants may intervene. (4)

Note: The treatment for this condition is the use of skin moisturizers that can be beneficial. Other treatments for nummular dermatitis may include oral antibiotics, tap water compresses, and corticosteroid creams or skin injections.

7. Perioral dermatitis

It is a skin disorder that can be confused with acne or rosacea. It manifests with a rash or reddish burning bumps in defined areas of the face, which may be filled with fluid or pus. Burning sensation around the mouth and nasolabial folds has also been reportedand is common in children and young women.

The attributable causes are the use of nasal, inhaled and oral steroids, due to the use of fluoride toothpaste, lack of facial hygiene, consumption of oral contraceptives and hormonal changes. (5)

Important: The treatment for this type of case is the suspension of fluoride dental products and topical corticosteroids(if they have been used). Your doctor may prescribe topical antibiotics, doxycycline or oral minocycline.

8. Dermatitis of the boot

Ocher dermatitis, also called stasis dermatitis, is a characteristic skin pathology located on the lower extremitiesand affects people who suffer from chronic venous insufficiency, associated with poor blood circulation. It manifests initially, with theappearance of purplish red spots that progress towards a brown color.

Regarding the treatment for ocher dermatitis, it is aimed at addressing chronic venous insufficiency and preventing the occurrence or progression of ulcers associated with wet compresses, and the application of a corticosteroid cream or ointment.

To highlight: A scientific article on “Venous insufficiency. Prevention and treatment”, relates the appearance of ocher dermatitis with the suffering of venous insufficiency in the adult population. (6)

Key Conclusions

  • Dermatitis is a pathology of the skin.
  • The causes of its appearance can be endogenous or exogenous.
  • It is characterized by the appearance of eczema, pruritus and erythema.
  • They can appear in individuals of both sexes regardless of age.
  • The evaluation of a specialist is required for diagnosis and treatment.
  • The different types of dermatitis do not represent associated health hazards nor are they contagious.
  • They are frequently related to a deficiency in the functioning of the immune system.

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