Many biological and chemical factors intervene in the characteristics of the human being and at the same time also give that differentiation between subjects of the same species and one of these factors is the genotype.

In the following article, we explain what the genotype is and describe what its characteristics are.

What is the genotype?

The human genotype is the set of genes existing in each of the cell nuclei and constitutes the genetics or genome of the individual. (1)

In other words, the genotype is basically the version of the DNA sequence that an individual possesses and that distinguishes it from the rest of its own species and from the rest of the living species. (two)

Note: Often the term genotype can also refer in the scientific literature to the two inherited alleles of a particular gene. (3)

In summary, those specific differences in the DNA sequence , usually referring to a specific gene, are called genotype and that difference in that gene can manifest itself in the phenotype such as eye color or height in individuals, including genetics . behavioral .

What are the characteristics of the genotype?

The genotype, being part of the genetic constitution of the individual , has certain aspects that differentiate it. Next, we describe the most outstanding characteristics of the genotype:

1. It constitutes the genetic information of an individual

As we have already mentioned, the genotype constitutes the set of genes of an individual and these genes define how we are , for example, in biological, physiological, psychological characteristics and even in diseases.

You should know: The modification of the sequence in the DNA structure can cause genetic alterations or the appearance of some types of genetic mutations . 

On the other hand, the sequence of how this genetic information is organized provides us with the individuality of which we characterize ourselves as individuals of the same species.

2. It is expressed in the manufacture of RNA molecules and proteins

RNA or ribonucleic acid (4) is a copy of the DNA molecule that carries the information that is going to be duplicated, in most cases, to produce the proteins that the organism needs.

In this sense, this is the way in which the genotype, through RNA, synthesizes the necessary compounds through the successive duplication of the original RNA of the organism.

3. It contributes to the observable traits of a person

At this point, the genotype is the biological and chemical manifestation of the characteristics of an individual from the DNA, which is manifested in observable and unobservable traits in the individual called phenotype.

To highlight: This is how the sequence and structure of genes in DNA is expressed through the physical traits of the same population, even of the same family.

4. It is transmitted from generation to generation

One of the characteristics of the genotype in humans, and in general in any living species, is that it is transferred from generation to generation through a process called genetic inheritance .

Note: Genetic inheritance allows the characteristics, both in structure and in sequence of the genotype, to be transferred to the offspring.

5. It cannot be seen with the naked eye

The genotype cannot be visualized with the naked eye, since it includes very small anatomical structures that require sophisticated technology to be able to be studied.

You should know: Only specialized laboratories such as those of the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) (5) have the technological capacity to carry out genotype studies.

What are the types of genotypes?

Dr. Peter D’Adamo, an American nutritionist, establishes in his book “The Genotype Diet” (6) , the 6 types of genotypes that arise in response to the environment. Which we describe below: 

1. Hunter

This type of genotype is possessed by individuals of both sexes, who have anatomically stylized muscles and shapes. Their gastrointestinal system is very sensitive , they suffer from heartburn and the presence of allergies is very common. 

To highlight: They have a high sensitivity to gluten , but protein of animal origin is very beneficial for them.

2. Collector

Generally, this type of genotype manifests itself with a rounded appearance and their tendency is to gain weight quickly, since they conserve excess calories in the form of body fat. 

Note: If their metabolic economy is adequate, they can age peacefully with an optimal weight , however, they rapidly metabolize the glucose they contain in the blood with a risk of Alzheimer’s disease (7) , depression , hypertension, obesity and Diabetes. . (8)

3. Master

In this case it is considered a balanced, vigorous and strong genotype. The diet of people with this genotype is based on vegetables rich in phytonutrients, helping the conservation and development of genes.

Likewise, they maintain their body weight in optimal shape and have an excellent metabolism. 

4. Explorer

People with this genotype have a longer life span , but with a very precarious quality of life at this stage, since they are very sensitive to environmental and chemical factors, because toxins last longer to be discarded.

5. Warrior

This genotype has the characteristic of being healthy and thin individuals in youth but they have a tendency to gain weight in adulthood and it is difficult for them to lose weight.

You should know: Their diet to preserve genetic health is Mediterranean, high in phytonutrients, and based on vegetables , due to which they recover quickly from diseases if they follow their diet. 

6. Nomad

They have an adaptable personality , their diet helps them maintain a balanced immune system and control the production of nitric oxide to avoid some cardiovascular pathologies.

To highlight: In stable conditions they can control caloric intake and age well. 

Key Findings

  • The genotype is the set of genes existing in the cell nuclei and constitutes the genetics or genome of the individual. 
  • The genotype is the version of the DNA sequence that an individual possesses.
  • All living species have a distinct genotype , even within the same species. 
  • The genotype is manifested visually through the phenotype.
  • The modification in the genotype sequence can cause genetic alterations and mutations.

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