In our brain, there are an innumerable amount ofchemical and neuronalprocesses that allow the human being to have the ability to think and reason, which iscalledcognitive process.

This process allows us to achievean adequate adaptationin the environment we cohabit, through learning and the acquisition of knowledge.

Therefore, in the following article we explain what this process consists of, what its characteristics are and what elements make it up.

What does the word cognitive mean?

The word cognitive refers to theset of processes that take placein the brain and that allows people to generate and assimilate knowledge, through a complex process whichforms the basis oflearningin individuals. (1)

It should be noted that the branch of psychology responsible for studying cognition is called Cognitive Psychology“, and is directly involved in thestudy of thepsychological processesinvolved in the creation of knowledge. (2)

On the other hand, the cognitive process has its theory called “Theory ofcognitive development“, created by the Swiss psychologistJean Piaget(3), who believed that the childhood of the individualplays a vital and active role in the development of intelligenceand that the child learns through doing and exploring actively. (4)

To highlight: The theory of cognitive development emphasizes that learning arises as a result of processes related toperception, memory, thinking and individual experience.

What are the basic elements of the cognitive process?

In the process of receiving and creating knowledge, a seriesof basic elements intervene that are interrelated and of which we talk below:

1. Perception

Perception is defined according to the context area in which it is found, however, the one used by psychology expresses that it is the cognitive process of consciousness that consists of the recognition, interpretation and significance of information, for the elaboration of judgments about the sensations obtained from the physical and social environment, in which other psychic processes also intervene. (5)

Note: Thanks to perception, human beings have the Ability to appropriate new knowledge in the learning process.

2. Attention

Attention as part of the cognitive process refers to the ability of human beings to select and concentrateon those stimuli that they consider relevant.

You should know: Another definition refers to the ability to generate, direct and maintain an adequate state of activation for the correct processing of information. (6)

3. Memory

Memory as an integral element of the cognitive process, is one of the functions of the brain and consists of the Ability to retain and retrieve informationtag. This element is used tostore coded and structured information, which can be recovered according to the interest or needs of the individual , that is, consciously and others involuntarily. (7)

4. Thought

Thought is another of the integral elements of the cognitive processand that literature has captured in various meanings. However, and for our purpose, the definition that we will use is that itconsists of the ability to plan and direct a subsequent conduct in a hidden way, to anticipate errors or allow better adaptations of future actions. (8)

To highlight: This ability is what allows us to reflect on the issues that share our interest, such as the fact of relating to the environment or in solving problems.

5. Language

Language as an element of the cognitive process and approach consists of the ability we have to express thoughts and feelings through words. It is one of the tools we use to communicate, organize and transmit the information we have at our disposal to others. (9)

What is the importance of the cognitive process?

The relevance of the cognitive process lies in the fact that it first opens the path to learning and represents the only way in which the human being Can acquire new knowledge or transform what he already has.

This has an implication for the human race, since it allows us Intellectual Development and turns us every day into beings avid for more information to face the different circumstances that arise in the interrelation with the physical and social environment.

Note: It also provides us with the necessary tools to build the paths that lead to satisfying our basic and complex needs.

Key Findings

  • The cognitive process includes the different mental operations that the brain performs to process information.
  • The term cognitive refers to the human capacity to learn and assimilate knowledge.
  • The development of the cognitive process opens the way to learning.
  • It provides us with sufficient tools to adapt and develop in our environment.
  • The cognitive process is constantly evolving and never ends.

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