Tics are involuntary movements or dystonias in the individual, which occur much more frequently in childhood. They have a rather variable intensity and also a long list of elements.

Phonatory tics include coughing, clearing, sniffing, squealing, and complications with syllables and pronunciation. Palilalia is considered one of the most severe cases, along withe cholaliaechopraxialogoclonuscoprolaliaanda praxia of speech.

In the following article we will learn aboutpalilalia, the causes that produce it in an individual, symptoms and what treatments can be applied for its control.

What is palilalia?

Palilalia is defined through the Fleni Organization as aninvoluntary repetition of the first syllables of words, including the repetition of the first words of a sentence or the same sentence several times in a row. (1)

Important: It is considered a language disorder and in many cases it is presented as a complement to some other disorder such asTourette Syndromeor Parkinson’s disease.

What causes palilalia?

Palilalia, like all disorders, has different elements that lead to the appearancein the individual. To facilitate the understanding of their origin, they will be mentioned and described below:

1. Neurodegenerative disorders

Pathologies such as degenerative dementia, can produce as one of its consequences the development of palilalia, in the same way asAlzheimer’s and metabolic alterations.

Note: The neurodegenerative factor will be the reason for the production of the linguistic disorderand the appearance of constant repetitions of syllables, phrases or words.

2. Genetic disorders

There are genetic factors that increase the risk or possibility of developing palilalia , being quite influential but not decisive. That is, even if you have a genetic predisposition for the language disorder, if there is no trigger, it is likely that it will not occur.

3. Malfunction at the articulator level

Palilalia is considered a Speech Defect engine, but , but one of control, because it does not produce a difficulty when starting, but an alteration in the repetition of syllables or phrases within the dialogue. (two)

4. Excess dopamine

Physiological elements such as excess dopamine in the body may be the reason for the presence of palilalia, especially in patients with Tourette syndrome .

You should know: People develop through this, hyperkinetic movements and tics characterized by being of biological causes. (3)

What symptoms occur in palilalia?

Palilalia presents with with various characteristic symptoms , , which we must refer to so as not to confuse it with other disorders such as echopraxia, logoclonia, or even apraxia of speech. They will be mentioned and described below:

1. Compulsive repetition of words or phrases

As we have mentioned throughout the article, the main characteristic of palilalia is a a constant repetition of syllables , the first words of a sentence or even entire sentences compulsively. It is spontaneous and involuntary.

2. Emission of incomprehensible sounds

The production of sounds and involuntary repetitions, in many cases makes communication quite difficult tag. Especially when there are very close and spasmodic repetitions that make it incomprehensible.

3. Incomplete or random words

Another factor that can appear in individuals with palilalia is the tic developed from the use of random words .

To highlight: This occurs outside the context of the conversation that is being held, or with incomplete words, which makes it lose meaning and promotes the degree of difficulty of assertive communication .

How is the treatment for palilalia?

There are are several types of treatments , which that can be applied to this type of linguistic disorders, which are also applied to movement disorders tag. They will be mentioned and described below for your consideration if necessary:

1. Behavioral therapy

These are therapies guided by professionals specialized in language, they are feasible for the stimulation of the individual. 

2. Relaxation and self-control techniques

Relaxation techniques are applied as a treatment to prevent stress symptoms from aggravating or deepening episodes of palilalia. These techniques are applied to patients, especially inthe stages of adolescence and adulthood , and consist mainly of psychological and muscular techniques.

Note: , yoga, and breathing exercises can also be effective strategies for managing palilalia . ,

3. Neuroleptic drugs

This type of treatment exerts an effect on the dopaminergic system , which means a regulation and control over emotions and the modulation of certain behaviors.

To highlight: For this previously stated reason, , it is applied in disorders such as palilalia and the emission of irrepressible words, or those that affect something at the articulatory level.

Key Findings

  • Palilalia is a Linguistic disordercharacterized by phonetic repetitions of syllables, words or phrases.
  • It is considered a tic that, although it involves genetic motivation, is not a unique reason for its development. It needs some trigger for its appearance .
  • Disorders and pathologies such as Tourette Syndrome or Parkinson’s are triggers for this type of speech problems and motor tics.
  • The application of treatments are usually techniques aimed at motivating or accompanying tic disorders, which facilitates acceptance by the patient .

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