What is fluconazole?
Fluconazoleis an antifungal medication used in the treatment and prevention of superficial and systemic fungal infections. It is also used to treat candida and other fungal infections, which can causeyeast infectionsin the vagina, mouth, throat, esophagus, abdomen, lungs, blood, and other organs.
The active substance of this medicine is fluconazole, accompaniedby excipient compounds such as lactose monohydrate (lactose), cornstarch, colloidal anhydrous silica, sodium lauryl sulfate and magnesium stearate.
Generally thepresentation comes in a box of two, in capsules of 100 mg, 150 mg or 200 mgand the dose varies according to the pathology to be treated. For hospital use, its presentation is in a bottle of 2 mg / mL with 100 mL.
Note: Although this medication has reported few cases of toxicity, you should always go to a doctor before self-medicate.
What is fluconazole indicated for?
Fluconazole is indicated for several fungal infections, which we mention below:
1. Genital and urinary tract infections
For genital infections such asvaginal candidiasis, caused by the fungus candida albicans and urinary infections such as cystitis or pyelonephritis, fluconazole is indicated.
Note: For genital infections, treatment is oral administration of a 150 mg dose of fluconazole every 8 hours. (1)
Regarding the dose for Urinary tract infections , treatment can be performed with 200 mg of fluconazole orally, once daily.
2. Cutaneous and mucosal infections
For mucosal infections that affect the lining of the mouth, throat or associated with dental prostheses such as candidiasis intertrigos, candidiasis onychomycosis, candidiasis in the digestive system, candidiasis in the respiratory system and vaginal candidiasis, among others, the use of this is recommended. medicine. (two)
For skin infections such as candidal intertrigos or candidal onychomycosis, fluconazole is indicated as drug therapy.
Treatment in the case of mucosal candidiasis is 200 mg to 400 mg the first day and then 100 mg to 200 mg until indicated by your doctor. In the case of skin infections and depending on the site of infection, 50 mg once a day, 150 mg once a week, 300 to 400 mg once a week for 1 to 4 weeks.
Note:With the indication of the doctor, for children between 28 days of age and 11 years with oropharyngeal candidiasis, a dose of 6 mg/kg is recommended on the first day followed by 3 mg per kilo per day. Minimum duration: 14 days.
3. Systemic infections
Systemic infection is a generic term used in medicine to name infections caused by microorganisms, where the causative agent spreads to the organs through the blood. (3)
For the treatment of this type of infection, fluconazole is used and the usual dose used varies between 400 and 800 mg daily under medical supervision. (4)
Meningitis is a life-threatening infection, caused by the Cryptococcus neoformans fungus called cryptococcal meningitis, which infects the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord.
Under medical supervision, a therapeutic intervention with fluconazole 400 mg is performed on the first day and subsequently 200 mg to 400 mg once daily, and the duration of treatment can take from 6 to 8 weeks.
There are patients with certain pathologies to whom the administration of this medication is not recommended. Here are some of them:
1. Allergy to components
During the administration of fluconazole, there are patients who are sensitive to fluconazole or any of its components.
Among the components of fluconazole is lactose, a carbohydrate that can cause serious digestive problems in people who are lactose intolerant.
Note: Keep this medication out of the reach of children.
2. Liver and kidney disorders
If you suspect kidney failure, notify your doctor before taking this medication as fluconazole may aggravate this condition. (5)
It is also important to know that excess fluconazole is excreted in the urine. If you suffer from kidney damage, consult your doctor, as it can cause toxicity in the body.
3. Heart disease
In patients with heart disease, when fluconazole is used concomitantly, it may increase the risk of cardiotoxicity and consequently sudden heart failure.
Important: The combination of fluconazole with halofantrine, which is an antipsychotic medicine, should also be avoided due to the high risk of heart damage.
4. Pregnancy and lactation
Fluconazole administration during the first trimester of pregnancy may increase the risk of miscarriage and may also slightly increase the risk that the baby will be born with congenital abnormalities affecting the musculoskeletal system.
Breastfeeding can be maintained if a single dose of 200 mg of fluconazole or less has been administered, but if multiple doses have been given, it is recommended to discontinue breastfeeding, since this drug has been found in breast milk.
5. Interaction with other medicinal products
If you take other medications for other pathologies, it is advisable to inform your doctor, since fluconazole interacts with other medications such as antibiotics, diuretics, anesthetics, antidepressants, antifungals, anticonvulsants, among others.
Note: You should notify your doctor if you are taking any medication, even without a prescription.
What are the side effects of fluconazole?
Adverse effects have been reported during the consumption of fluconazole. Here are the most common:
1. Allergic reactions
If you notice symptoms such as itching or hives, swelling of the face or hands, swelling or tingling in the mouth or throat, chest tightness, shortness of breath, abdominal pain, dizziness, or seizures, among others, stop taking fluconazole and see your doctor. your doctor.
Note: You must be vigilant while taking this medication, as allergic reactions can cause the onset of anaphylactic drug shock.
2. Gastrointestinal upsets
This medicine can cause vomiting, diarrhea, nausea, abdominal pain, mainly in the continuous and prolonged oral dose of this medicine.
In these cases it is advisable to consult your doctor , so that he can indicate therapeutic options to mitigate these discomforts.
3. Headache and muscle pain
Important:Avoid at all costs self-medicate. It has already been described that this drug can interact with other medications that can aggravate your general health.
4. Loss of appetite and tiredness
Another adverse effect is lack of appetite, possibly due to gastrointestinal discomfort caused by prolonged intake of fluconazole.
Additionally, another undesirable effect, possibly due to its effects on the digestive system, is general tiredness, due to a lack of consumption of nutrients required by the body.
5. Taste disturbance
Fluconazole can cause dysgeusia , a condition that occurs very rarely, and where the patient reports a persistent bad taste in the mouth.
This sensation can be salty, rancid or metallic, sometimes it is accompanied by burning mouth syndrome.
- Fluconazole is an antifungal medication for the skin and mucous membranes.
- No severe toxicity has been reported in its use, except in those cases of prolonged exposure.
- The dose of this drug will depend on the severity of the pathology, as well as the state of health of the patient.
- Its use during pregnancy or lactation should be carried out prior medical evaluation.
- It can provoke the appearance of allergic reactions with the possible appearance of anaphylactic shock.