Over time great thinkers, philosophers, sociologists, psychologists, among other specialists who are interested in themethods of learning and development of the human being, have proposed the creation of theories, plans and positions that study the how and why of the attitudes of each individual, one of those theories beingconstructivism.

In this article, we will precisely developthe bases raised by constructivism, its principles and main representativesof this pedagogical current.

What is constructivism?

Constructivismwas born around the eighteenth century, with the theory that the construction of knowledge in individuals is thanks to the process of human interaction, taking into account thateach subject builds his own reality according to the social environment where he develops, his point of view in various situations and the previous experience he has.

Note: The constructivist model is closely linked to aspects such as: cognitive abilities, affective stimuliand the different elements that make up the construction of new knowledge.

On the other hand, according to psychology and pedagogy, the basis of this model lies inperceiving a reality, organizing it and giving it meaning. That is, constructivism can provide the necessary tools so that the student or person in general can acquire new skills. (1)

What are the principles of constructivism?

The quality of this pedagogical current is that it deals directly with teaching methods and thecognitive processin the construction of new knowledge. That is why below, we presentthe basic principles of constructivism:

1. Knowledge is built individually

According to the constructivist field, the acquisition of knowledge by the students must be individual , that is, the teaching and education of each student is based on the rhythm, the cognitive responses, the behavior and the way or method of learning that is most match your individual interests. (two)

In this sense, constructivism highlights the importance of the individual taking an active part in the formation of knowledge, unlike Behaviorism , which is another theory of learning but which places the subject as a passive entity at the time of acquiring knowledge.

To highlight: In the same way, in constructivism, the teacher has the duty to Promote teamwork , so that the student can also acquire learning from their peers.

2. Interaction with the environment facilitates learning

The constructivist theory makes human beings interact with each other to share ideas, knowledge and experiences. Which, in turn, helpeach individual to enrich the information bases that they already have and start with the reconstruction (if necessary) of said knowledge.

You should know:Constructivist education models adhere to the individual learning process. However, the teacher, as the main subject of the expansion of knowledge, also has the responsibility ofpromoting interaction among students as part of the Social Learning alternatives .

3. The level of cognitive development influences learning

The constructivist movement, among other things, is the result of research that is based on the cognitive development of each person . On the other hand, the different cognitive approaches that each individual experiences according to the situation that arises, will be the result of the level of cognitive development that he possesses.

Important:Each human being has a different level of cognitive development, which exponentially influences the learning capacity of each one. Therefore, it is imperative thatthe schemes, processes and teaching methods adapt to the different constructions of realities .

4. Prior knowledge is necessary to assimilate new information

Now, all of this helps the student or individual in question to make major decisions or make significant changes in their life , but it also strengthens their cognitive process and facilitates the understanding of new information. (3)

5. Autonomy and critical thinking are developed

During human development, it is important that each person develops as an autonomous being capable of evaluating, analyzing, classifying and interpreting everything that is around themtag. This helps individuals to improve a series of aspects that are related to behavior and constant learning.

Who are the representatives of constructivism?

The constructivist theory has been studied by a large number of scientists who propose different concepts, structures and schemes of said pedagogical model. Next, we will detailthe most relevant representatives within the constructivist field:

1. Lev Vygotsky

He was a renowned Russian psychologist, Whocontributed to the creation of different theories based on social constructivismtag. This author ensures that language, together with the different processes at a historical and social level, are the fundamental basis for the acquisition of new knowledge.

2. Jean Piaget

Born in Switzerland, he is known for being one of the precursors of genetic epistemology. According to Piaget’s ideals, constructivism is based on theacquisition of learning through interaction with the environment that surrounds each subject.

To highlight:  The author ensures that reading spaces should be included in the classroom, among other methods, in order to guarantee a Better Knowledge Capture .

Key Findings

  • The constructivist theory is based on the acquisition of knowledge through experience and interaction with the environment.
  • The Principles of constructivism are based on prior knowledge as the basis for acquiring new teachings effectively.
  • Social interaction and the level of cognitive development of each person also influence the construction of individual knowledge.
  • The precursors of the constructivist model were Lev Vygotsky and Jean Piaget.

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