The specialized literature has classified the types of needs according to their impact on the life of man and among them are the primary, secondary and tertiary needs, which cover all those deficiencies that man must solve to maintain a good qualityof life.

In this article, we will explain what primary needs consist of and we will describe what some of them are.

What are primary needs?

To understand the term primary need, we must contextualize the definition of the word “need and for this we will take references from some authors of importance in the subject.

ForHenry Murray“Necessity is a construct of biological substrate, which represents a mobilizing force that leads to changing an unsatisfactory situation, which can be provoked by an internal state such as hunger.” (1)

On the other hand, forAbraham Maslow(2), necessity is understood as “Amotivating force generated by a state of lack. The achievement of needs is sought in an increasing and hierarchical way”. (3)

In this context, primary needs comprise a set of basic needs that are vital for the survival of human beings and that are linked to the deficiencies of something physical or psychologicalthat cause involuntary impulses, essentially of psychophysiological origin.

Note: This type of human needs belongs to the categorization of “Needs according to their nature” and which are divided into “primary and secondary needs”, and can also be placed at the first levelof Maslow’s Pyramid.

What are the primary needs?

Next, we will make a detail of the deficiencies that can be considered as primary needs:

1. Breathe

One of the most important needs for the subsistence of the human organism consists of breathing. Breathing is an instinctive physiological function of the organism , to provide the cells with the essential amount of oxygen and at the same time to eliminate the carbon dioxide that results from cellular metabolism.

To highlight: In this sense, efforts should be made to provide the body with quality airand maintain healthy airways.

2. Feed

Another of the primary needs of the human being is food, since it provides the necessary nutrients for the organism to carry out its metabolic functions efficiently.

You should know: You should try to have a Quality diet , with foods that contain enough vitamins , minerals and antioxidants to ensure adequate nutrition for the body’s cells.

3. Hydrate

Another essential element for the well-being of the organism and an acceptable quality of life is to maintain the composition of body fluids, especially water, at an adequate level. (4)

Important: Let’s remember that more than 60% of the composition of the body is made of water , being essential to maintain the functions of the organism in total balance.

4. Rest

This is an element that is very important for the human being and that is frequently ignored. During rest,the body works to rebuild and replace all those tissues and fluids that have suffered wear and tear during the day, including blood, favoring people’s quality of life. (5)

Note: It is recommended to have a continuous rest (sleep) of at least 7 hours and during the night, to allow the organism to carry out its task of cell repair and recovery.

5. Grooming

Body hygiene is a basic matter of the human beingtag. Constant hygiene is a way toprevent contamination , especially on the skin, with pathogenic microorganisms that cause Diseases that can impair the quality of life of the individual.

Therefore, personal hygiene and even the environment that surrounds us, is essential for a healthy life as a basic need.

6. Bundle up

Protection against cold and low environmental temperatures is essential for our quality of life .

In this sense, our body Can withstand certain temperatures and that may depend on the level of subcutaneous fat that each person has, so a coat is necessary to maintain the proper body temperature.

To highlight: The temperature for the human body to function properly is between 36.1 °C and 37.2 °C. (6)

7. Housing

Housing, although it is not part of the basic physiological needs of the human being and can be considered among the secondary needs, from the psychological point of view it can be included among the elements that provide peace of mind to the individual.

The house is the place of refuge that people need to protect themselves, take shelter from the weather, preserve their privacy and favor their survival.

You should know: The economy and poverty in the world can be exogenous factors that affect the satisfaction of primary needs.

8. Expel waste from the body

In order to maintain its metabolic functions in correct harmony, the organism must detoxify periodically and for this, the organs in charge of this function, such as the kidneys and the liver, must function correctly.

Note: This is achieved with adequate nutrition and regular physical activity.

9. Sex

Sexual relations are part of the natural physiological instincts of the human being and are inherited by human genetics. Thus, the act of reproduction is one of the primary and basic needs of the human species.

To highlight: In recent decades, some primary needs are linked to those that society classifies as essential.

Key Findings

  • Primary needs are a set of basic needs that are vital for the survival of human beings.
  • Primary needs are linked to the lack of something physical or psychological , that is, they are of psychophysiological origin.
  • Primary needs arise from an Unconscious impulse created by the absence of something essential for life.
  • Primary needs are demands that must be met promptly to maintain the psychophysiological balance of the organism.
  • The fundamental primary needs are breathing, eating, hydrating, resting, among others.

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