Infectious diseases are those that represent one of the most serious risk factors in the health system worldwide, due to their ability to evolve and the resistance to antibiotics that we can present.
In the following article, we will talk precisely about what infectious diseases are and which are the most common.
What are infectious diseases?
An infection exists when there is the presence of microorganisms with the capacity to multiply and that have an invasive influence on tissues, cavities, and body fluids of a patient or host. (1)
To highlight: These types of diseases can be classified depending on their evolution , depending on the causative microorganism and from the clinical point of view. The main causes of these diseases are viruses, prions, bacteria and eukaryotes.
Most common infectious diseases
Below we will mention the most common infectious diseases, covering certain parameters that will allow their knowledge and identification.
1. Common cold
A common cold appears from being exposed to a type of virus. The symptoms usually appear between three or four days after the acquisition and are usually quite characteristic, from nasal congestion, headaches, muscle aches and general malaise.
Note: It usually disappears in a matter of two weeks, being a low-risk infection and treatments are applied only to reduce and control symptoms.
2. Human papillomavirus (HPV)
HPV is a primarily sexually transmitted infection , which can affect areas such as the throat and genital areas. There is no specific symptomatology, but it usually causes the appearance of warts and, in more serious cases, the development of cancer.
Note: The treatments applied focus on the elimination of warts and the strengthening of the immune system. (two)
3. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
HIV is caused by a lentivirus that is responsible for decreasing and weakening the immune system. It is spread through bodily fluids such as blood and the symptoms are characterized by being very mild, so it is of high risk due to the possibility of continuing to infect other people. His treatment seeks to slow down the advance of the virus and apply antiretroviral therapy.
It is one of the most common infectious and viral diseases . Its contagion occurs from different sources, depending on the type of virus that causes hepatitis.
It can even be produced by toxic substances and food infections. It has a fairly broad symptomatology, where dark-colored urine, fatigue and abdominal pain in the liver area stand out.
Important: For the treatment against hepatitis , antiviral drugs are usually applied, to reduce the damage that it can cause to the liver. It is important not to consume any alcohol during the recovery period and to eat correctly. (3)
Pneumonia is an infection that causes the appearance and accumulation of fluid or pus in the air sacs, it can even be in both lungs, which leads to the presence of cough, fever, chills and difficulty breathing.
This infection can be caused by different fungi, viruses and bacteria . An antibiotic treatment is applied, depending on the nature of the causative germ and the severity of the disease.
Malaria or paludism is an infectious disease produced specifically by parasites of the genus Plasmodium and is contracted through a mosquito bite. The severity of the disease is influenced by the species of the small parasite and the symptoms are usually characterized by fever, chills and sweating.
To highlight: For this disease there are preventive medications when you are in an area at risk of contagion and antimalarials, antiparasitics and antibiotics are applied for existing infections. (4)
7. Yellow fever
Yellow fever is a disease that comes from a mosquito bite , specifically from the Aedes aegypti that is usually present in parts of Africa and South America. The symptoms are manifested through fevers, headaches, vomiting and in severe cases renal, hepatic and cardiovascular complications.
Note: For the treatment , preventives are applied in case of traveling to areas with latent risk and when the disease is contracted, the aim is to control and reduce the present symptoms.
Herpes zoster is one that can manifest in any part of our body , appearing as a red stripe with the presence of blisters and being caused by a virus that is also responsible for chickenpox. Antibiotic and antiviral treatment is applied, including in some cases analgesics if there is pain.
Note: Herpes zoster are those known colloquially as shingles.
- Infectious diseases are those produced by the presence of microorganisms or germs.
- They are usually quite contagious and one must be very careful when dealing with certain complications, due to the possible evolution of the causative pathogen.
- The most common infectious diseases in patients usually have a preventive source of contagion.
- It is important to always seek professional medical assistance to treat the symptoms and reduce the risks present.