The human bodydemands elements for its functioningin balance, so its absence unbalancesthe physiological and psychological harmonyof human beings. This gap between demands and shortages is commonly referred to ashuman needs.
In this article, we will explainwhat human needs consistof and how they are classified.
What are human needs?
Human needshave been addressed from different theoretical contextsdue to the perspective that has been sought to focus, however, to contextualize, we will take as a referencetwo exponents of the humanist current.
While forMax Neef (3) and collaborators, they have postulated a classificationof human needs into ontological needs and axiological needs, which is based on the “Theory of development on a human scale”. (4)
Important: In both classifications, it follows that human needs are related topsychophysiological deficiencies of the individual, which must be satisfied to maintain theirphysical and mental balance.
How are human needs classified?
To try to show a broad classification, where these authors have coincidences, below we mention the most commontypes ofhuman needs according to the reviewed literature:
Theprimary needsare those thatcomprise a set of elements, vital for the survivalof people and that arelinked to the deficienciesthat consequently cause impulses in the organism, essentially of psychophysiological origin.
Among these are the needs of feeding, breathing, resting, hydrating, reproducing, cleaning, among others.
To highlight: These needs are satisfied through goods and facilitate, for example, communications, own transportation, and enjoying technological elements for recreation.
Individual needs refer to that set of deficiencies that are characteristic of an individualand that therefore may have different ways of satisfying them. For example, the need for recognitioncan be satisfied from different perspectives according to the aspirations of each individual.
You should know: Let’s remember that each person is a thinking and emotional individuality, therefore the way to solve their shortcomings revolves around the goal they are pursuing.
Collective needs are more directed to those that arise in the communityor in groups. These needsare consequences of life in society and common community interests, such as public services.
Note: Collective needs are also born from individual needs , but require the participation of other people for their resolution.
Social needs are those that are linked to community life, that is, they are the relationships of the individual with the social group to which he belongs.
These human needs, for the most part, depend on the economy in general and can be satisfied through the performance of economic activities, where money necessarily intervenes , for example, the purchase of clothing, footwear, a car, among others.
You should know: Human needs in the economy have gone from a mechanistic conception to a humanistic one.
7. Not cheap
In this type of need, the intervention of the economic factor or the investment of money is not required, as is the case of breathing, watching the sunset or seeking affection in family and friends.
The security needs can include the search for protection, the , the consolidation of the acquired achievements , the autonomy, as well as the concern to achieve an organized life, without fear or fear of people, animals or environmental phenomena. .
Note: This need is among the 5 levels of the Maslow pyramid and among the 9 needs described by Neef .
Self-actualization is the final goal or goals that the individual has proposed as the maximum achievements in his life and is referred to his most abstract human psychological needs.
In this sense, self-actualization has to do with Personal purpose , with self-evaluation of oneself and the success one has had with the proposed goals and as a necessity it has a strong psychological component.
To highlight: The need for self-realization is difficult to define , since each person, according to their individuality, has different goals for personal fulfillment.
- Human needs are related to the set of psychophysiological deficiencies not satisfied by the human being.
- Human needs are infinite and variable, in terms of how to satisfy them.
- The satisfaction of human needs leads to the integral development of the individual.
- Human needs have the characteristic that they are recurrent .
- The satisfaction of human needs, notoriously influences human behavior.