What are genetic factors?

Genetic factors can be defined as the set ofelements associated with geneticsthat can influence the biological, physiological, psychological and structural conformation of the human being.

Note: These genetic factorscan affect the health-disease statusof the individual from birth or during their development at different stages of their life.

In this regard, research by scientists throughout historyhas studied these genetic factors, becausethey can predispose the human being tobe susceptible to diseasessuch asdiabetesfor example and also other aspects related to the psychological state of people, such asbehavioral genetics.

What are the genetic factors?

Below we describe what are the genetic factors, whichcan influence the health-disease status ofhumans:

1. DNA

DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid is the molecule that is part of the cell and contains the genetic information responsible for the conformation, development and general functioning of an organism. (1)

Genetic instructionsare described in DNA ,which define how cells work, when they have to divide and basicallydefine how we are.

You should know: The genetic information contained in DNA is transmitted from generation to generation , whose study is carried out through genetics. (two)

2. Genes

A gene is the storage unit of genetic information, located in segments of DNA, which contain information about how the cells of the organism should function. These genesare contained in the chromosome and a chromosome can contain thousands of genes. (3)

In this sense, changes or alterations in various genes that make up the DNA chain can increase the risk of a genetic disease in humans such as cancer.

To highlight: It only takes one abnormal gene, either from the father or the mother, to generate an inherited health disorder that can affect the individual’s lifestyle.

3. Chromosomes

The term chromosome arises from the Greek words for color (chroma) and body (soma) and constitutes the ordered structure of DNA, which is found in the nucleus of the cell.

The human genome is made up of 23 pairs of chromosomes and they define the individual characteristics of the human being and each pair of chromosomes contains a chromosome from the mother (chromosome y) and another from the father (chromosome x). (4)

Note: Chromosome structure Can define individual traits including diseases.

4. Phenotype

The phenotype constitutes the set of of physical, biochemical and behavioral characteristics that are observable and distinguish each human being, which is part of the Genetic inheritance .

On the other hand, the phenotype is made up of height, eye color, hair color, skin color, hair shape, blood type, behavior, or certain pathologies. (5)

You should know: The phenotype of a person is determined by the interaction of two factors: the genetic factor and the environmental factor.

5. Genotype

In practical terms, the genotype is simply the version of the DNA sequence that an individual has. (6)

And why talk about the version?. This refers to the fact that each individualcontains a variation of these DNA sequences, which in the end is expressed in the phenotypic differences of the individuals.

To highlight: The change in the DNA sequence is almost always related to a change in some individual trait of human beings, including the appearance of a disease.

How do genetic factors influence health?

As previously mentioned, the makeup of DNA, chromosomes, and genes can define the health of an individual, including that of a population.

How do genetic and environmental factors interact?

At this point, it is important to understand that the human being adapts to the environmental conditions where it develops and there already exists an interaction between the individual’s genetics and the environment, for an adaptation process to occur.

However, there are environmental factors that can negatively influence the genetic structure of the individual, generating genetic mutations and triggering health disorders. This is how a scientific article on “Risk Factors in Genetic Diseases”you describe it .(9)

Important: We can be genetically predisposed to a disease and never suffer from it, but if we expose ourselves to Triggering environmental factors , the appearance of the disease can be promoted. (10)

Key Findings

  • Genetic factors comprise the set of elements associated with genetics.
  • These genetic factors can influence the biological, physiological, psychological and structural makeup of the human being.
  • Genetic factors can influence the health-disease status of the individual.
  • Genetic factors, when interrelated with inappropriate environmental factors , can lead to the appearance of genetic diseases.

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