What are psychological schools?

Psychological schools could be defined as that institution where professionals of psychology or related specialties converge, in which they share the same doctrines of thought, analysis and assessment on a well-identified object of study.

These psychological schools also serve as a place of learningof defined psychological aspects, for the study of the mind and human behavior.

Note: From the psychological schools arise the principles and theoretical postulates, with which they support and carry out their research, which have characterized them throughout history.

What are the psychological schools?

Next, we will make a brief description of the main schools of psychological thought that are most relevant in history:

1. Structuralism

Structuralismis a psychological currentthat emerged in the early twentieth century, and then became a research method used by the social sciences to analyze society and its components from a systemic perspective.

in 1879, in his firm intention to), and

To highlight: This psychological current focused on the analysis of mental processes through introspection, its object of study being the approach and understanding of the structures that govern the conduct and behavior of the individual and discovering the laws that related it.

2. Functionalism

The current or psychological school of Functionalismemerged in England at the beginning of the 20th century,mainly in social anthropology and sociology. In psychology it had its greatest exponent inWilliam James(6)the precursor of Functional Psychology. considered

You should know: For functionalism, mental processes have the function of helping the organism to adapt to the environment and it is of special interest in why mental processes occur, as well as in the “understanding of mental states as intermediaries, with a specific causal role between sensory inputs, behavioral outputs and other mental states”. (7)

3. Cognitivism

Note: This school has its highest representation in Jean Piaget ((8) , David Ausubel ((9) and Jerome Bruner (10).   His interest is in knowing how the human mind thinks and learns and how it uses this product to solve problems.

4. Behaviorism

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Behaviorism was really considered as part of psychology from the work of Edward Thorndike , but despite the fact that it represented a great advance with respect to Watson, he continued his work on animals.

To highlight: Years later other researchers such as BF Skinner emerged, but despite the scientific advances of the time, the study of psychology has always been subordinated to the animal field. It should be noted that the general interest of behaviorism focused on the cause-effect relationship .

5. Psychoanalysis

The psychological current of psychoanalysis has been considered as a theory and in turn as a therapeutic method. This school has as its greatest exponent Sigmund Freud (12) Austrian physician and neurologist.

You should know: This psychological trend emerged at the end of the 19th century (around 1896), and its purpose is to investigate and study the soul of the human being and, consequently, its object of study is the unconscious of the human being.

6. Humanism

Note: The appearance of the humanist school gave a complete turn to the way of thinking and gave theHuman Beingimportance within the social context. In humanistic psychology he had his representation in Abraham Maslow and his Pyramid of Human Needs .

7. Systemic psychology

System psychology constitutes an important advance of general psychology, because it considers the human being as a complex and relational system. This branch of general psychology was born in the middle of the 20th century in the United States.

His interest is focused on the components and relationships that arise from the relationship in the family, taking into consideration that it is based on the “General Systems Theory”tag. One of his forerunners was the Austrian psychotherapistPaul Watzlawick. (13 )

To highlight: Systemic psychology in the family field is closely related to family psychology .

Key Conclusions

  • Psychological schools are institutions where psychology professionals in related disciplines come together.
  • The psychological schools share the same doctrines of thought and work on the same object of study.
  • Psychological schools also serve as a place of learning about psychological aspects.
  • From them arise the theoretical principles and postulates, with which they support and carry out their investigations.

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