Diabetes is a chronic disease, which unfortunately has no cure yet . This condition irreversibly affects the functioning of the body, forcing those who suffer from it to have strict control over their diet for life.
For this reason, it is recommended that all diabetes patients maintain a healthy lifestyle , where it is necessary to exercise, avoid sugars, and have a balanced diet, in order to prevent complications and enjoy a normal life.
In the same way, diabetes can cause uneven blood glucose levels , and an imbalance in the body. That is why we will provide you with all the necessary information to know its causes, symptoms, and mainly, how to control it.
What is the diabetes?
Diabetes is an irreversible disease , which occurs due to an excess of sugar in the blood . This is because the pancreas does not secrete the amount of insulin that the human body requires, so it must be supplied intravenously.
Important : When there is a decrease in insulin , there is an amount of glucose in the body that is completely harmful and can cause kidney and heart complications, vision problems, digestive diseases, heart attacks and even the amputation of some lower limbs.
causes of diabetes
Diabetes is a disease, which can originate in people of any age and sex. On the other hand, there are various factors and pathologies that can cause this terrible pathology, some of which are the following:
Diabetes can start due to insulin resistance , this occurs when the liver , muscles and fat cells do not use this substance correctly, which causes the body to require its supply so that glucose enters the cells.
Note: Insulin resistance can cause damage to the pancreas , liver, loss of muscle mass, and excessive gain in body fat. The lack of insulin is a fundamental risk factor for suffering from this pathology.
Monogenic diabetes is a typology of this rare disease, caused by a genetic mutation , which has characteristics of type 1 and type 2 diabetes . This diagnosis is usually generated in babies between 0-6 months and young people.
Also, this condition is generated due to an autosomal dominant gene that is inherited from one of the parents who has a family medical history with diabetes, which can develop for several generations.
Until now it has been difficult to find a definitive relationship between hormones, blood sugar levels , insulin resistance, and diabetes. But it can be said that an imbalance in certain hormones could cause uncontrolled glucose levels .
Similarly, growth hormones that are activated in adolescence can cause insulin resistance. Also, there is the possibility that women who are in their menstrual cycle present a disorder in blood sugar levels.
All this is due to the fact that hormones such as adrenaline, cortisol, epinephrine and glucagon have a close relationship with blood glucose, since they induce the liver to release more glucose to transform it into energy.
Injuries to the pancreas
Some problems in the pancreas such as pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer can cause severe trauma. When this organ is injured, there is a possibility that it stops producing insulin, opening the way to diabetes and digestive diseases .
Overweight and sedentary lifestyle
Obesity and lack of exercise are the most common factors causing diabetes. Eating foods high in sugar and fat allows the body to need to produce more insulin in order to distribute glucose throughout the body.
Important: A study carried out at the Diabetic Care and Education Center of Cuba revealed that 77.8% of diabetic patients suffered from being overweight knowing that they suffered from this disease, which closely relates diabetes to being overweight (1) .
It is common for some drugs to control a disease, alter the functioning of the liver or pancreas, causing insulin imbalances. Some B3 vitamins, diuretics, anticonvulsants, HIV drugs, and psychiatric drugs can trigger diabetes.
Types of diabetes
Now, diabetes is a disease that can be very dangerous, if it is not diagnosed and treated on time, which is classified into 3 types that differ in causes and treatment. Below we will briefly explain each of them:
This type of diabetes tends to attack children, adolescents and young adults more frequently , and it occurs when the immune system destroys the cells of the pancreas that produce insulin, which makes medical administration of this substance mandatory.
Note: A study carried out in Brazil states that patients with type 1 diabetes usually comprise the ages of 0 – 5 years . Likewise, the same research states that the estimated number of people with diabetes in South and Central America is 118,600 , of which 88,300 are children under 15 years of age (2) .
This is the most common type of diabetes in the world and usually occurs in older adults . It manifests itself, because insulin receptors decrease , which prevent glucose from entering the cells, increasing the level of sugar in the blood.
Similarly, type 2 diabetes causes insulin to not fulfill its function and even if there is enough of this hormone in the body, its effectiveness is lost. Its main cause is said to be obesity .
Gestational diabetes is very common in women with a family history of diabetes. This occurs because the hormones that the placenta creates during pregnancy make the cells resistant to insulin.
Fact: All this is caused, since when little glucose enters the cells, blood sugar levels increase and this type of diabetes occurs.
How to control diabetes?
Diabetes requires a lot of control and care , after its diagnosis. Poor care of it and failure to comply with its medical requirements can cause death. Therefore, we will explain some methods to control this disease , in order to maintain an adequate glucose level:
1. Apply the indicated doses of insulin
The dose of insulin to be applied, the amount required and the doctor’s recommendations vary according to the condition of each patient.
Important: Before administering the insulin it is necessary to know the treatment and regime that is being used, to avoid unevenness of the same.
In case of presenting problems and requiring a change in the amounts of insulin, it is necessary to reduce the dose under medical supervision. Alterations of the same should be avoided, and control glucose levels with diet and exercise.
2. Consume prescription drugs
It is necessary and mandatory to consume prescription medicines for diabetes. Under no circumstances should treatment be abandoned, since these drugs help to keep all the factors of diabetes under control.
Important: If the patient comes to suffer from any side effect , you should immediately notify your specialist doctor. Thus, the professional will take the pertinent measures to eliminate the side effects of your treatment or prescribe another medication.
3. Regularly measure sugar values
It is necessary for a person suffering from diabetes to constantly monitor their blood glucose level . Many times other physical conditions can limit maintaining a successful glycemia monitoring , this being the most effective.
4. Maintain a healthy weight
It is common for people with diabetes to suffer from obesity , so maintaining a healthy weight decreases the risk of developing this disease and of depending on drugs. In case of not being able to lose weight, the doctor may suggest taking drugs to lose weight.
Note: In case of not being able to lose weight, the doctor may suggest taking drugs to lose weight.
5. Follow an adequate eating plan
Regardless of the type of diabetes, the diet must be healthy. Consuming foods with the necessary amount of nutrients is vital to be able to have an ideal weight . In addition, all diabetic patients should go to a nutritionist to obtain an adequate eating plan and avoid the risk of generating complications.
6. Take care of carbohydrate portions
The amount of carbohydrates that are consumed daily should be taken care of, since they have an effect on sugar levels, for which it is advisable to maintain a moderate consumption of carbohydrates and have a balance with insulin doses.
Every patient is different, but everyone with diabetes needs close contact with a nutritionist. Thus the patient will have a more reliable knowledge of the amount of carbohydrates that he can ingest under the supervision of a specialist.
7. Regulate foods and drinks with high levels of sugar
Sugary foods and drinks should be avoided , since these foods have consequences in diabetic patients. Soft drinks, processed juices, sports drinks have a glucose content and should only be ingested in case of having a low sugar crisis .
8. Perform constant physical activity
All diabetics should exercise . Thanks to the practice of some sport or the performance of some simple physical activity, people who suffer from this disease can maintain an adequate weight and avoid obesity.
Note: They can practice some low-impact sport, walk, climb stairs or do yoga.
9. Consume enough water
Diabetics should consume a high level of water , as dehydration can cause a glucose imbalance . On the other hand, the kidneys eliminate excess sugar in the body by filtering it, so it is necessary to consume water to rehydrate the blood.
10. Moderate alcohol consumption
High alcohol consumption can cause glucose levels to drop. A person with diabetes can only drink alcohol if their doctor authorizes it, since an excess of it can unleash complications for those who have this pathology.
Note: In case the doctor approves the consumption of alcohol, you should eat first and quantify the calories of these drinks and include them in the calculation of those that are allowed daily.
11. Keep your feet clean and cared for
One of the problems that most affects diabetics is neurological damage . This can cause decreased sensation in the feet , easily causing irritation, so it is necessary to avoid bumps, discomfort, calluses, and ulcers in these areas of the body.
Important: A recent study from the State University of Maringá in Brazil showed that foot care and how to maintain adequate hygiene prevents the appearance of ulcerations that cause amputations (3) .
12. Go to regular ophthalmological check-ups
Diabetic patients should regularly visit an ophthalmologist , who is a specialist in this disease, in order to prevent diabetic retinopathy and eye injuries, since when suffering from diabetes it is advisable to have annual ophthalmological check -ups.
- Avoid sugary foods and drinks as much as possible.
- Maintain a balanced diet under the supervision of a nutritionist, and mainly control carbohydrates.
- Do some physical activity to maintain an ideal weight and prevent obesity.
- Comply with medical treatment.