What is a pulmonary embolism?
Pulmonary embolism, also known aspulmonary thromboembolism, is afatal category diseasethat causes a complete or narrow closure in the pulmonary artery, affecting even its branches and blood veins around the lung.
It is considered serious due to the fact that, when the blood vessels of the lung close, blood and oxygen are not distributed, which causes drowning and finally death in a short time. In other cases you may suffer from chest pain or pulmonary infarction and fever.
Note: A medical study mentions that “Pulmonary embolism is a condition that is associated with high mortality and morbidity. It is estimated that more than 100,000 cases of PD occur annually.” (1)
What can cause a pulmonary embolism?
Pulmonary embolismhas several key causes, which are very important to know due to theirlevel of severity. Here are the most important causes:
1. Severe trauma
Among the most dangerous traumas that cause pulmonary embolism arechest trauma, as well asinjuries to the chest wall and tracheobronchial tree. They can also be the cause of pleural effusion.
Note: It is known, thanks to a medical study, that “Venous thrombosis is favored by one of these three factors: venous stasis, intimate lesions or hypercoagulability. Factors caused by chest wall injuries or pulmonary contusions.” (2)
2. Major surgery
It is not a very common cause, but if itis necessary to take it into account. There are major surgeries that are complex in the process, even havingmany complicationsor risk factors that can cause pulmonary embolisms.
These types of surgeriesare those to treat injuries, diseases or tumors, serious malformations and trauma.
3. Lower limb injuries
This refers to injuries in the lower extremities , which can be linked in a very direct way to the pulmonary embolism.
First, it must be clarified that lower limbs refer to the legs, made up of bones, joints, muscles and even tendons. WhichCan end up suffering injuries or traumas that affect the blood vessels throughout the body.
4. Cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases
Some of the most dangerous cardiovascular diseases thatcause pulmonary embolism are: heart failure, hypertension, stroke and cerebrovascular disease. On the other hand,autoimmune diseases that attack healthy cells in our body, such as diabetes or lupus, can also cause a pulmonary embolism.
Important: It should be noted that a study mentions that ” The group of cardiovascular diseases are rare in women before menopause, being then these women of 40 years and older, who have a certain possibility of suffering a pulmonary embolism.” (3)
5. Hormonal drugs
The inappropriate consumption or use of hormonal drugs,especially without prescriptions, can have serious consequences for the body, including effects such as hot flashes, asthenia or prolonged fatigue and low blood circulation. The latterdirectly affects the blood vessels of the human body.
Note: Some of the most commonly used hormonal drugs are vasopressin, anabolic steroids, estrogens, and oxytocin.
Pregnant women have a high level of risk of suffering a pulmonary embolism or thromboembolism, this is mainly due to changes in blood circulation and blood coagulation during pregnancy, as well as other factors such as age or suffering from lupus. systemic erythematosus.
Being overweight or obese can directly affect blood circulation and organ function, which is a major risk factor for pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis, both disorders are closely related to vessel obstruction. Blood vessels and a subsequent embolism.
8. Prolonged immobility
Prolonged immobility is a consequence of disorders such as paralysis, physical alterations, quadriplegia or immobilization syndrome.
When the body does not move for long hours or days, the blood does not circulate properly through the arms, legs and the entire body, causing bruising and stopping breathing or palpitations, thus causing a pulmonary embolism.
How is a pulmonary embolism detected?
There are certain symptoms of pulmonary embolism that, with good reason, cause great alarm in a person. It is necessary to detectthe key symptoms of pulmonary embolism to differentiate them from the others, so we present the most relevant:
1. Chest pain and shortness of breath
During a pulmonary embolism, Shortness of breath , also known as dyspnea , can be felt but for a long time and with the sensation that the breath is not reaching the diaphragm.
Important:There is also chest pain in the front of the body, around the neck and chest. It is not usually bearable and sudden movements worsen the symptom.
2. Rapid breathing
Pulmonary embolism cancause agitated or very rapid breathing, which is uncomfortable and does not allow the body to receive air or oxygen properly, as a result unforeseen fainting or severe paralysis can occur.
3. Elevated heart rate
Due to the closure of the pulmonary blood vessels, The Heart Rate Rises due to fear and anguish, which is dangerous, since the heart continues to pump blood rapidly.
In addition to the above, if the blood does not circulate correctly it can fill the veins and explode, causing hemorrhages and small pulmonary embolitag. This is also known asSinus tachycardia.
4. Coughing up blood
Coughing up blood is a common symptom and of major concern , the cough can be strong and prolonged, accompanied by severely clotted blood and severe pain in the throat.
Note: If this situation occurs, you must be alert because of how rare it becomes.
5. Bluish skin
Bluish skin is a unique symptom of pulmonary embolismtag. This occurs due to the lack of blood coagulation, which results in theformation of very large and quite visible bruises, especially in the chest. It is dangerous since it is an advanced state of embolism. It is accompanied by clammy skin and extreme weakness.
Pulmonary embolism can cause anxiety attacks and blackouts, mainly from shortness of breath and increased heart rate. This causes panic and extreme fear, not surprisingly, since this type of embolismcan cause a heart attack and even death.
What is the treatment for a pulmonary embolism?
Fortunately, there is information on Effective treatments for pulmonary embolisms.Mainly, these treatments can be reinforced by first opting for lung scintigraphy or a computed tomography and verifying the lungs.
It should be noted that all treatments must be applied by medical professionals. Knowing this, we share the most important measures for your knowledge:
1. Anticoagulant and thrombolytic drugs
These types of drugs are supplied by the professional doctor, and help to stop the formation of clots and their dissolutiontag. These medicines and substances help rapidly dissolve fibrin and prevent red blood cells or platelets from clumping together, which can stop the formation of a very dangerous pulmonary embolus.
To highlight: The known anticoagulant drugs are heparin or coumadin (the most recognized) and the thrombolytics become alteplase and urokinase.
2. Vena cava filter
This is a mechanical measure of medicine in the form of prophylaxis, it works as a filter that is installed in the inferior vena cava, in order to retain a pulmonary embolism directly. It is the only most efficient test to deal with pulmonary embolism.
The catheter is a very important device that is used for the purpose of drawing blood, it even works to administer intravenous treatments or transfusions. This can be very useful in the case of the presence of a pulmonary embolism, as well as being direct and precise.
- It can stop breathing, blood flow or the passage of oxygen to the other internal organs of the body of patients who suffer from it.
- Its main causes can vary from cardiovascular diseases, chest trauma and even pregnancy.
- They can lead to symptoms such as a strong cough with blood, chest pain, and the presence of blue skin and severe bruising.
- There are several effective and intravenous treatments to directly combat pulmonary embolism in a person.
University Professional in the area of Human Resources, Postgraduate in Occupational Health and Hygiene of the Work Environment, 14 years of experience in the area of health. Interested in topics of Psychology, Occupational Health, and General Medicine.