What are temperament types?

To enter into context, the termtemperamentmeans theimmediate and automatic reaction of the human being, to a stimulus that arises from the environment constituting an emotional phenomenon acquired throughgenetic inheritanceand thereforepart of the habitual behaviorcoming from theunconscious(1)

As thepsychological traits derived from the nervous systemaredifferent between individuals, then different types of temperament arise that will define the behavioror reactive behaviorof a person in the face of various stimuli.

You should know: Temperament has its theoretical origin inGalen of Pergamon (2), a philosopher of ancient Greece who built the “Theory of Temperaments“(3), which states that the levels of bodily humorsand the emotional inclinations of the person (his temperament) were intimately related”, framed in 4 types of temperament.

What are the types of temperament?

From the information obtained from the Greek philosopherEmpedocles(4) and then from the Greek physicianHippocrates(5), Pergamum defined4 personality types or temperamentsthat we describe below:

1. Blood temperament

One of the first concepts Galen of Pergamon worked on was the Sanguine temperamenttag. People with this temperamentare characterized by being cheerful, optimistic, always seeking personal interaction and having a fast nervous system.

To highlight: The judgments and opinions of the sanguine temperament lack truthfulness,   since they do not bother to find out or confirm the facts, they lack the vision to perceive the difficulties and they show a partial behavior to the people with whom they sympathize.

2. Melancholic temperament

People with a melancholic temperament have a weak nervous system and therefore tend to be calm, serene and quietbut deeply thoughtful.

They are characterized by being perfectionists, they prefer to do things themselves and fear failing in their goals ( atelophobia). For them, things have to be done well and if not, they are not done and that is why they are people who are prone todepression or anxiety .

Note: They are not very emotional and rarely lose their cool,although they act with pride. They are people with a developedMathematical logical intelligence, predominantly inductive thinking. They are also characterized by having acoldpersonality,their mood can change easily and they have a tendency to sadness.

3. Choleric Temperament

People with Choleric temperamentArecharacterized by pursuing goals and stay awake to achieve them , they are organized, sociable but do not work empathically and tend to overdo it, since they have an unbalanced but strong and fast nervous system.

They are energetic, proactive individuals and do not depend on other people to achieve their goals . They are not very flexible in their opinions and are very determined in their position, in addition to occupying their time in a defined activity.

To highlight: This temperament Self- stimulatesConfidence and they are not afraid of confrontation, they act assertively and Do not despise leadership positions and because of this they can be involved in many interpersonal conflicts.

4. Phlegmatic temperament

They persevere to achieve their goals and base their actions on rationality since they correspond to thinking individuals , they rarely get Angry or lack a bad mood, they are shy towards the group and reject leadership roles avoiding being the center of attention .

You should know: Another of its characteristics is that people with this temperament are lazy and negligent at work , they prefer to rest, eat and drink, they show little energy, so they do not have ideal goals.

Key Findings

  • Temperament types are derived from the characteristics of the predominant nervous system in the individual.
  • Temperament is an immovable and unchangeable element of the human being.
  • The genetic inheritance through the genotype, transfers these temperamental characteristics to its descendants.
  • Temperament is characterized by immediate and innate reactive behavior , so it has an individual character.

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