What is a nosebleed?

Nosebleeds orepistaxis (known more technically) is a fissure inside or outside the nose that causes bleeding, sometimes light and in the worst case, can be serious and harmful. Many people can get it frequently, even children.

It can occur frominjuries, very sudden blows, prolonged exposure to calor or other times the causes may not be determined without medical check-ups. This occurs because the nose is an area rich in vascularization and is delicate to rubbing, due to the sensitive mucous walls of it.

Note: A medical study compiles that “Epistaxis is any hemorrhagic phenomenon originating in the nostrils. It has a prevalence of around 10-12%, being a fairly frequent process due to the great vascularization of the area”. (1)

Causes of a nosebleed

The various causes of a nosebleed can vary, sometimes even difficult to determine at the precise moment. That is why we will present the main causes of a nosebleed.

Trauma and injuries

This isthe main cause of nosebleeds, it is present in sport mostly. These are traumas caused by sudden blows or with too much force, directly towards the nose or injuries caused by minor actions such as pulling hairs from the nose,blowinghard and picking your nose.

allergies and colds

It is strange that this happens, but it is relevant, allergies and colds generate irritation, which causes the person to scratch or rub their nose in order to alleviate the discomfort, this breaks the vascular vessels and causes slight bleeding.

Note: It can sometimes be referred to as Allergic Rhinitis and is directly related to nosebleeds. (two)

deviated septum

It is an injury, where the nasal septum is directed to the other side in a remarkable way, making one passage of the nose smaller than another. From this injurynosebleeds or even nasal congestion can be born, which can become very annoying over time.


The nose is an area with mucous walls, it is rare that this area is not humid, in cases of dryness, it can cause irritation or discomfort inside the nose, which causes tickling and people begin to scratch their nose, whose skin is dry. or sensitive, as a result nosebleeds occur.

Anticoagulant drugs

These drugs are generally used as prophylaxis or treatmentfor thrombotic diseases. Therefore, they have very serious side effects if they are not taken properly, because they control the formation of fibrin.

To highlight: Medical check-ups are needed for the use of these drugs and to avoid unnecessary nosebleeds.

Environmental temperature

Many times the temperature of the environment can cause nosebleeds , especially heated spaces.

Being exposed to high heat temperatures, directly in the sun or in places with very low humidity , causes the blood vessels in the nose to dilate a lot to the point of breaking and causing nosebleeds.


One of the most common diseases regarding nosebleeds is allergic rhinitis , which is an inflammation in the nose, where blood vessels can break due to irritation and cause bleeding.

Note: One study mentions that “The term rhinitis is used to describe a heterogeneous symptomatic nasal disorder that presents with inflammation of the nasal mucosa . ” (3)

Hormonal changes

When there are hormonal alterations, because the adequate hormonal levels are not balanced , a much more abundant blood flow is caused.

It happens mostly to women , coming with mood swings and rashes, nosebleeds being just one of the few consequences of these changes.

Types of nosebleed

It should be noted that nosebleeds can occur in two main ways, there are not different types, only that they exist with the same result:

Nasal interior

It is the bleeding or nosebleed that occurs inside the nose, it can occur due to fissures in the mucous walls or directly a rupture of the small blood vessels (which can be due to the sudden extraction of nasal hairs), this becomes the most frequent and allows the passage of foreign bodies from the environment.

Posterior nasal

It refers to bleeding from the outside of the nose, due to injuries or trauma caused by very sudden blows, capable of generating bruises beyond just nosebleeds.

Note: This is usually more serious, since they are larger blood vessels and are difficult to heal or scar.

How to stop a nosebleed?

Fortunately, there are many ways a patient can stop nosebleeds, it just takes patience and not panic. These are the following measures for it:

Compress the nose for a few minutes

For this, it can be supported by the use of a clean and disinfected towel , with it you compress and make a slight force on the nose for a few minutes , this is to prevent the bleeding from prolonging, since if it dries it will act as a healing agent inside of the nose.

Stay seated and lean forward

You must remain seated, in order not to move suddenly and lean forward , in order that the bleeding does not prolong or in any case worsen, you must keep the bleeding controlled with your movements.

Apply ICE

Ice helps to contract the nasal muscles, reducing painor numbing the area, this helps to cool the mucous walls and achieve much faster healing. An ice cube is enough to relieve nosebleeds.

avoid lying down

It is not recommended to lie down, because the bleeding can change direction and go directly through the nasal tubes, entering the throat and the interior of the body, which is uncomfortable and can be extremely dangerous.

Avoid sniffing and blowing your nose

Do not aspirate or blow your nose very hard, if you are in the middle of a nosebleed it will be uncomfortable, which worsens the problem around you. You must breathe normally and remain calm , in this way you control the bleeding and prevent it from spreading through the environment you are in.

Use a nasal decongestant

Nasal decongestants can help, you should only use them for these cases and correctly. They also remove excess mucus and clean the inside of the nose area,

Tip: They can be made at home with warm water or foods rich in vitamin C. This is a great and safe alternative.

Go to the doctor if necessary

If there is a lot of nosebleeds, the irritation is unbearable and there is very frequent pain; It never hurts to see a doctor. It is important in addition to that, because it canprescribe the necessary drugs and means to stop the bleeding.

How to prevent a nosebleed?

To conclude, there are ways to successfully prevent a nosebleed , remember to apply these simple tips to avoid going through these uncomfortable or painful moments.

Avoid picking and blowing your nose forcefully

These are common reflex acts that we do without realizing it, so we must avoid blowing our nose unnecessarily, especially with great force or to uncover our ears.

Note: We must avoid digging inside it, this will prevent us from breaking the internal blood vessels, it is therefore recommended to have short nails.

Use soft tissues

If you want to clean your nose, in case you have any tickling or discomfort, Use Very Soft Tissues , such as wet wipes, these will help make the process of picking or touching your nose safe and painless.

Maintain moisture with nose drops

Nasal drops will help you control the humidity inside the nose, avoiding dryness, plus it can be beneficial to uncover the nose if it is compressed. With this we will avoid irritations and subsequent nosebleeds.

Keep cool environments

, remember to look at the temperatures to which your nose may not be accustomed, with this you save problems of dilation and nasal congestion.

Use protection in physical activities

During exercises or sports remember to use protection, such as Small Cotton Balls Inside the Nose , which allow you to breathe and at the same time protect you from unwanted blows.

Note: With this you avoid painful injuries or traumas that cause nosebleeds.

Key Findings

  • A nosebleed is bleeding that occurs inside the nose and on the outside of it.
  • It can be caused by trauma , disease, dilation of the nose, or by cuts in the blood vessels.
  • Nosebleeds are very common in children , especially if they play sports.
  • A patient should remain calm during a nosebleed, to avoid unwanted complications.
  • There are Home Measures to stop nosebleeds, as well as preventative means to prevent nosebleeds from occurring.

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