What are neurological diseases?

Neurological diseases, according tothe World Health Organization (WHO), are those that affect theCentral Nervous System (CNS) and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS), thus altering its componentssuch as the brain, spinal cord, muscles, among others.

To highlight: Neurological diseasesmay be due to infections themselves or the body’s immune responses. In addition to being influenced by congenital factors and external agents or trauma.

Most common neurological diseases

As we mentioned previously, neurological diseases, although not very common, present the determination and identificationof which are the most likely to develop. They will be mentioned and described below.

1. Dementia

Dementia can be defined asan irremediable inability to interact and functionproperly, including loss of memory and autonomy.

Important: It usually leads to death and is predisposed from the presence of genetic factors, head trauma and advanced age.

In most cases, dementiacomes as a direct consequenceof Alzheimer’s, also including influence by Lewy bodies and Pick’s disease.

2. Alzheimer’s

Alzheimer’s disease was first described in 1907. It is irreversible and is characterized by occurring in older adults. It is pathogenesis and in many cases even hereditary, where neurofibrillary degradation occurs with the loss of neurons and synapses. (1)

The duration of it is variable, with an average between 7 and 8 years of life with the disease. It is a fairly complex pathologyand the cure is completely unknown, but it is recognized that the use ofantioxidants and anti-inflammatorieswould be useful for its prevention. (2)

3. Parkinson’s

Parkinson’s diseaseis considered the second most frequent and prevalent neurodegenerative disease, with advanced age being one of the most important risk factors for its development.

Note: It influences the deterioration of the quality of life of patients and progressively increases its mortality.

The manifestation usually starts from degenerative lesions in the neuron systemand both biochemical and pathophysiological alterations. Four main manifestations called cardinals are also usually identified, ranging fromSmall Tremors to loss of postural stability capacity. (3)

4. Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a disorder at the brain level that affects regardless of age, where repeated epileptic episodes occur due to excessive and disorderly discharges of brain neurons.

To highlight: Epilepsy can be convulsive or non-convulsive , defining the latter as one where there are discharges without presenting involuntary movements in the body. (4)

In addition to the above, epilepsy is not transmissible and is considered chronic, because it can lead to fractures and bruises as a side effect, as well as anxiety and depression. In its treatment, anticonvulsant drugs are applied and predictive patterns are made to predict and reduce risks.

5. Meningitis

Meningitis is an infection that occurs in the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord, called the meningestag. It can lead to severe sequelae and even death.

Note: It is caused by different infectious agents, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasitestag. It is transmitted to other individuals through the respiratory tract and close contact with patients.

The symptoms are variable, but it is essential to seek medical assistance to apply the treatment as soon as possible, since this could make the difference between life and death.

6. Migraine

Migraine in general terms is a constant, repetitive and acute migraine or headache. It is usually episodic, but in many cases it implies other symptoms that accompany gastrointestinal effects.

It should be noted that migraine affects 18% of women and 6% of men worldwide, where it is diagnosed based on certain criteria established by the International Headache Society (IHS). (5)

Note: Migraine is treated depending on its intensity and frequency, therefore the treatment must be applied consistently and efficiently as soon as the prevention symptoms appear.

7. Multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis is a progressive disease , which occurs due to inflammation of the white matter of the brain. According to medical studies, it is produced as a consequence of genetic or environmental factors that have not yet been fully identified.

It presents multiple lesions throughout the entire Central Nervous System (CNS) and produces motor, sensory, sphincter, visual and mental alterations. (6)

Note: The symptom that is considered as the one that identifies the appearance of multiple sclerosis is an increase in sensitivity for no apparent reason, where the individual may suffer from body pain, numbness, tingling, burning and stinging.

8. Brain aneurysm

Cerebral aneurysms are arterial lesions, which present weakening due to the dilation of a segment of the blood vessel. It is of high risk due to the existence of a probability of vessel rupture and even thrombosis.

Note: They are also known as pathologic dilations and occur in approximately 5% of the population.

9. Muscular dystrophy

A muscular dystrophy is a group of diseases that occur in the person due to a genetic mutation that directly affects the muscles and is characterized by being progressive.

The application of corticosteroid treatments can influence the improvement of strength and muscle function, however this disease cannot be cured and they have a chance of life up to 30 years of age. (7)

10. Stroke

The term stroke is used to refer in general terms to Cerebrovascular Accidents(ACV) and means attack or blow. Its origin comes from aCirculatory Disorder , which temporarily or permanently alters the functioning of one or more parts of the brain. (8)

Note: The symptoms appear abruptly and unexpectedly and among these manifestations it is important to highlight: change in language that makes it unintelligible, loss of strength and sensitivity, impaired vision, loss of coordination and intense headache.

Key Findings

  • Neurological diseases are high risk and need immediate identification and care to reduce existing complications.
  • There are neurological diseases that develop with age and other types of disorders that abruptly change the quality of life of the individual.
  • Neurological diseases that have a genetic influence are difficult to treat, being even incurable and restricting the life of the individual in many aspects.
  • It is important that in the face of any noticeable alteration that occurs in our body, coordination and capacities, a medical consultation with a professional is attended .

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