What are eye diseases?

Eye diseasescause effects on an organ indispensablefor the life of the individual, so its determination and recognition is extremely important. Thesecan cause sudden changes in visionand affect the different components and elements of the eyes.

To highlight: Sight is responsible for sending signals and information to the brain, so we must be careful considering how susceptible it is to any external agent.

Most common eye diseases

Next, we will mention and describe which arethe most common main diseases of the eye, to allow us to identify them and recognize the importance of the care they require.

1. Conjunctivitis

Conjunctivitisis a fairly contagious viral disease. It is usually produced by the action ofinfectious, toxic or mechanical agents. It leads to the appearance of tearing, foreign body sensation and in many cases a very characteristic type of discharge.

It is easily transmitted through direct or indirect contact, where symptoms usually appear between 12 and 72 hours after infection.

Note:It is important to take into account that it is essential that it be attended to avoid massive proliferation and also unnecessary complication.

2. Glaucoma

Glaucoma is characterized by being a chronic and evolutionary disease, its outcome being blindness. It is even the main reason in percentage, of suffering from irreversible blindness worldwide.

It is considered an optic neuropathy and usually presents with increases in intraocular pressure, which increases the risk of glaucoma progression. It can be classified as open-angle or closed-angle glaucoma depending on the obstruction presented.(1)

Note: Glaucoma treatment focuses on reducing the evolutionary course, directed at decreasing intraocular pressure and increasing blood flow.

3. Cataracts

Cataracts cause a whitening of the lens of the eyetag. From the patient’s point of view, everything becomes cloudy, making it appear as if they are seeing through foggy or dirty glass.

It is usually Related to Old Age, but can also occur as a result of trauma. It also tends to increase the risk of its appearance, if someone in the family has suffered from it and constant exposure to the sun.

4. Diabetic retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy is another of the main causes with the highest incidence rate of sight loss. Risk factors are the course of the patient’s diabetes and poor glycemic index control.

To highlight: It is considered a major public health problemdue to its magnitude and is classified into proliferative and non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Control and responsibility on the part of the patient is important, due to its potential risks.(two)

5. Age-related macular degeneration

It is a degenerative disorder, which causes the loss of the ability to visualize fine and small details,making reading difficult. It is more common in older people and is a problem related to the retina.

There are two types of age-related macular degeneration: dry and wet, with the latter being the less common but more serious. The diseaseis usually not noticeduntil the vision is already quite blurry. The treatment applied is aimed at slowing down the process.

6. Chalazion and stye

The chalazion and the stye are often confused with each other, but it is important to define that the chalazion is the enlargement of a fat gland, which is why it ends up looking like an internal pimple. Styes, for their part, usually exist due to infection of one of the eyelash follicles.

Note: Stress, hormonal changes and poor hygiene in the eyelids can be the main causes of the appearance of these annoying eye infections.

Heat and anti-inflammatories are usually applied for its reduction and in the case of the chalazion, steroids are injected and a surgical intervention is performed under local anesthesia. (3)

7. Myopia

There is no way to prevent it, but it is important to recognize it from childhoodto apply the corresponding treatment, that is, the use of lenses to correct the visual defect. It is operable but only after 20 years of age.(4)

8. Astigmatism

Astigmatism occurs due to a morphological error, where the cornea has mismatched curves resulting in two images and a blurry effect. It then limits the focus of near and far objects.

It is a fairly common mistake and is treated through corrective surgery with laser or intraocular lens. It is usually determined through the presence of symptoms of constant visual fatigue and problems changing focus.

Note:There are three types of astigmatism: simple, compound, and mixed. These are differentiated by the severity of the condition that it presents and if it is in only one eye or in both.

9. Presbyopia

It is also called eyestrain and is a defect that is produced by the loss of elasticity of the crystalline lens, which then complicates the ability to focus images at different distances. It is a phenomenon that occurs over the years and is due to the aging of this structure.(5)

Important: It cannot be prevented because it is part of the natural degenerative process of sight, but the use of lenses or the application of surgery can reduce the annoying symptoms of presbyopia.

10. Strabismus

Strabismus is usually a disease you are born with , although it can develop in adulthood.

It is a problem where the axes of the eyes are not parallel , and in most cases of sudden appearance, it is due to the presence of other diseases such as: diabetes, head injuries, hemorrhages, heart attacks, stroke and diabetes mellitus.

11. Farsightedness

It is an ocular defect or anomaly where nearby objects are perceived as blurry. It occurs in 70% of newborn children, due to the lack of development of the organ, but it resolves over time. It cannot be prevented but it is easy to treat with the application of prescription lenses or glasses.

12. Dry eyes

It is considered, along with conjunctivitis, one of the Most commonand treatable diseases. It consists of asensation of dry eyes and the risk of suffering from it increases depending on the age of the person.

Note:It is usually progressive and quite uncomfortable. The treatment will always depend on the influencing factors, thanks to the wide spectrum of possible causes, and can be prolonged for a lifetime.

Key Findings

  • Eye diseases cover a wide range where the eyeball is faced with different disorders, defects and anomalies that cause malfunction.
  • There are many corrective treatments but few ways to reduce the risks of eye diseases due to the fact that some are congenital or for no apparent specific reason.
  • Among all the problems that occur in vision such as sensitivity to light, blurred vision, among others, the focus problem is the common factor of almost all diseases.
  • It is important to see a professional to reduce risks and complications, as well as the opportunity to improve the quality of vision and reduce uncomfortable symptoms.

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